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CLD Flame

Coflow Laminar Diffusion Flame (CLD Flame)

Index 0clip Image0063

Image of a lifted flame of 50% propylene in a coflow of air (at ambient pressure) from an ex-ploratory test conducted on the International Space Station in 2009 as part of the Smoke Point In Coflow Experiment (SPICE).

Research, especially including that already conducted in microgravity, has revealed that our current predictive ability is significantly lacking for flames at the extremes of fuel dilution, namely for sooty pure-fuel flames and dilute flames that are near extinction. The general goal of the Coflow Laminar Diffusion Flame (CLD Flame) experiment is to extend the range of flame conditions that can be accurately predicted by developing and experimentally verifying chemical kinetic and soot formation submodels. The dependence of normal coflow flames on injection velocity and fuel dilution will be carefully examined for flames at both very dilute and highly sooting conditions. Measurements will be made of the structure of diluted methane and ethylene flames in an air coflow. Lifted flames will be used as the basis for the research to avoid flame dependence on heat loss to the burner. The results of this experiment will be directly applicable to practical combustion issues such as turbulent combustion, ignition, flame stability, and more.

“First flame for the CLD Flame experiment (and more generally ACME), where the test was conducted on the International Space Station on 15 Nov. 2017. In this test, methane – the primary component of natural gas – diluted with nitrogen is burning. Near the beginning of the video, a coflow of air (surrounding the gaseous fuel flow) is started which causes the initially dim flame to become smaller and brighter. The fuel flow and coflow are then both increased together causing the flame to detach and lift from the coflow burner (which isn’t visible). The flame shape changes dramatically as the flame lifts from the burner allowing oxygen to mix with the fuel upstream of (i.e., below) the flame. Computational modeling is facilitated by the detached flames, where they can be seen at the space shuttle main engines during launch photographs. The flow conditions are such that combustion can’t be maintained at the burner despite the presence of both fuel and oxygen.”

CLD Flame interviews

Interview of Prof. Marshall Long (Yale University), Principal Investigator
     Coflow Laminar Diffusion Flame (CLD Flame) experiment
     by Dennis Stocker (NASA Glenn), ACME Project Scientist

Interview of Davide Giassi (Yale University), doctoral student researcher
     Coflow Laminar Diffusion Flame (CLD Flame) experiment
     by Dennis Stocker (NASA Glenn), ACME Project Scientist

Investigators:

Coflow Laminar Diffusion Flame (CLD Flame)
Principal Investigator: Prof. Marshall Long, Yale University
Co-Investigator: Prof. Mitchell Smooke, Yale University
Co-Investigator (and Russian lead): Prof. Sergey Minaev, Far Eastern Federal University, Russia
Co-Investigator: Dr. Valerii Babushok, Far Eastern Federal University, Russia
Co-Investigator: Dr. Fedir Sirotkin, Far Eastern Federal University, Russia

Project Scientist: Dennis Stocker, NASA Glenn Research Center
Dennis.P.Stocker@nasa.gov
216-433-2166

Deputy Project Scientist: Prof. Fumiaki Takahashi, Case Western Reserve University
fumiaki.takahashi-1@nasa.gov 
216-368-6838